NEWS
Benvenuti sul nuovo sito web dello Studio Odontoiatrico Associato Dama & Zacchetti: Vi aspettiamo presso gli studi di Cesano Boscone (MI) e di Gorla Maggiore ( VA).
Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

The time period Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu which means camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to varied ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with one another and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually developed into present day Urdu. It is for this reason that Urdu can also be referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.

Throughout its development Urdu language additionally assumed various names like the term Urdu-e-Maullah meaning the exalted military which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the term Rekhta that means scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.

History and Evolution of Urdu Language

Evolution and development of any language depends on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Varied invasions and conquests on a spot have an effect on the development of its language. Urdu is no exception as it additionally underwent various levels of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The term Prakrriti means root or basis. It is a later version of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.

With the coming of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a necessity was felt to differentiate Urdu with different languages particularly Hindi. It grew to become a Hindi-Urdu controversy and in consequence Khari Boli and Devanagari grew to become the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words changed with Sanskrit served the aim of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.

Urdu emerged as a definite language after 1193 AD - the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. As a result of the amalgamation of native dialects and the language of the invaders - which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language developed which later became Urdu. Through the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the tip of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had change into Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the coming of the British, new English words also became part of the Urdu language. Many English words have been accepted of their real form while others were accepted after some modifications.

At the moment, Urdu vocabulary accommodates approximately 70% of Persian words and the rest are a mix of Arabic and Turkish words. However, there are additionally traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. But these influences are little.

Urdu was taken to different parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the frequent people. On account of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the folks of various speech and dialects, a mixed form of language formed called 'Rekhta' (Urdu and Persian in mixed form). Quickly folks started to make use of the new language in their speech and in literature which resulted in the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the thirteenth century in India in the course of the Mughal rule. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who may be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. Mughal kings have been the great patrons of artwork and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of 'Sheri Mehfils' (poetic gatherings) in the kings' courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana have been the famous Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language by way of their literary works.

It is certainly true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the same language i.e. Prakrit, but where the Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic style of writing and emerged as a separate language. However beside common ancestry, the two languages are as totally different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical differences in each languages.

Urdu was also used as a software by the Muslims for freedom struggle and for creating awareness among Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, providers of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal usually are notable, who by their poetry and prose provoked the necessary spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to become the national language of Pakistan on the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the national language of Pakistan, spoken and understood thoroughly by majority of the population.

For more about meaning in urdu review our web-site.
Sei qui: Home Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

Galleria immagini

Seguici

Siamo qui

Dentista a Cesano Boscone - Gorla Maggiore